Sex ratio is used to describe the number of females per 1000 of males. In India, it has become significant to get the numbers because of the declining number of females. Several factors are to blame for it, but there are also those fighting to bring about equality in the numbers.
There seems to be a good news as the number of females seem to have risen according to recent data. In 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao campaign to counter discrimination both against female foetuses and girl children. The campaign started in Panipat in Haryana, a state where the child sex ratio as per the 2011 Census was just 834 girls to 1,000 boys. Since then, the state government has filed more than 400 cases against offenders – doctors, quack doctors, paramedical staff and laboratory technicians – under the PCPDNT Act.
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Health authorities in states like Maharashtra and Rajasthan have tried to implement the law by conducting inspections and sting operations at ultrasound centres.
The all India sex ratio at birth rose by eight points since 2015-16 from 923 to 921 girls per 1000 boys. The all-India SRB was 923 in 2015-16, 926 girls in 2016-17 and 929 in 2017-18 according to data provided by ministry of women and child development in Parliament.
The major cause of the decrease of the female birth ratio in India is considered to be the violent treatments meted out to the girl child at the time of the birth. The Sex Ratio in India was almost normal during the phase of the years of independence, but thereafter it started showing gradual signs of decrease.
Though the Sex Ratio in India has gone through commendable signs of improvement in the past 10 years, there are still some states where the sex ratio is still low and is a cause of concern for the NGO organizations. One of the states which is showing a decreasing trend in the population of women 2011 and is a cause of concern is Haryana. The state of Haryana has the lowest rate of sex ratio in India and the figure shows a number of 877 of females to that of 1000 of males.